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Yadong Industry Limited

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Contact:Mr. Zhao Bin(Mr.)  





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Product Details

Chips for mobile machine and print machine 6735WM,6572AX
8002A/8002B/8002D/8005/LM4871 SOP8
LM4863 SOP16/DIP16/TSSOP20
LM4890/LM4809 MSOP8
LM386M-1/LM386N-1 SOP8/DIP8
PAM8403 SOP16
PAM8803 SSOP24
TDA2030A/TDA2003A TO-220
PT2399 SOP
TDA2822/TEA2025/UTC2025 SOP/DIP

Chip (CDMA), the fundamental unit of transmission in CDMA
ChiP (ChucK for iPhone/iPad), a programming language used for music synthesis
CHIP (programming language), based on Prolog
CHIP (computer), an inexpensive Linux dev board built by Next Thing Co. and marketed as a miniature computer
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), a molecular biology method to map DNA sites of specific protein-DNA interaction, such as promoters
Common Hybrid Interface Protocol System (CHIPS), which defines a computer network's interface and protocol systems used in serial and wireless communications
Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS), a microsatellite launched in 2003
STUB1, a human gene also known as CHIP (C terminus of HSC70-Interacting Protein)
English interpretation
A silicon chip is a very small piece of silicon with electronic circuits on it which is part of a computer or other piece of machinery.
Chip (chip) is the semiconductor device products collectively. Is the integrated circuit (IC, integrated circuit) carrier, formed by the wafer segmentation.
Silicon is a very small silicon, containing integrated circuits, it is a computer or other electronic equipment part [1].
Is the integrated circuit, refers to all the electronic components, is a collection of a variety of electronic components on the silicon board to achieve a specific function of the circuit module. It is the most important part of electronic equipment, bear the function of computing and storage. IC covers a wide range of applications of military, civilian almost all of the electronic equipment.
The relationship with the IC / chip editor
Chip, English as Chip; Chipset chipset. Chip generally refers to the integrated circuit carrier, but also integrated circuit through the design, manufacture, packaging, test results, usually a can be used immediately independent of the whole. "Chip" and "integrated circuit" the two words often mixed use, such as in our usual discussion topic, integrated circuit design and chip design is a mean, the chip industry, IC industry, IC industry is often a meaning . In fact, the two words are linked, there are differences. IC entities often exist in the form of chips, because the narrow sense of the integrated circuit is to emphasize the circuit itself, such as simple to only five components connected together to form a phase-shift oscillator, when it is still on the drawing, we It can also be called integrated circuits, when we want to take this small integrated circuit applications, it must be a separate piece of real, or embedded into a larger integrated circuit, relying on the chip to play his role; Focus on circuit design and layout of the chip, the chip more emphasis on circuit integration, production and packaging. The broad sense of the integrated circuit, when it comes to the industry (as distinct from other industries), it can also contain a variety of chip-related implications.
Chip and integrated circuit
Chip and integrated circuit atlas
Chip also has its unique place, broadly speaking, as long as the use of micro-processing means to produce the semiconductor chip, can be called the chip, which does not necessarily have a circuit. Such as a semiconductor light source chip; a mechanical chip such as a MEMS gyroscope; or a biochip such as a DNA chip. In communications and information technology, when the scope is limited to silicon integrated circuits, the intersection of chips and integrated circuits is in the "circuit on the silicon chip." Chipsets are a series of interrelated chipsets that are interdependent and combined to play a greater role, such as the processor inside the computer and the north and south bridge chipsets, the RF, baseband and power management chipsets .
Computer chips
If the CPU CPU analogy as the heart of the entire computer system, then the chipset on the motherboard is the whole body of the trunk. For the motherboard, the chipset is almost determined the function of this motherboard, thereby affecting the performance of the entire computer system to play, the chipset is the soul of the motherboard.
Motherboard chip function and working principle
Motherboard chip functions and working principle atlas
Chipset (Chipset) is the core component of the motherboard, in accordance with the arrangement of the motherboard position is different, usually divided into North Bridge chip and South Bridge chip. North Bridge chip to provide the type and frequency of the CPU, the type of memory and maximum capacity, ISA / PCI / AGP slot, ECC error correction support. South Bridge chip provides the EBC data transmission for KBC (Keyboard Controller), RTC (Real Time Clock Controller), USB (Universal Serial Bus), Ultra DMA / 33 (66)
Approach and ACPI (Advanced Energy Management) support. North Bridge chip which plays a leading role, also known as the main bridge (Host Bridge).
Chipset identification is also very easy to Intel440BX chipset, for example, its Northbridge chip is Intel82443BX chip, usually on the motherboard close to the CPU slot position, due to the chip's high heat, the chip is equipped with heat sheet. Southbridge chip in the vicinity of ISA and PCI slot location, the chip name for the Intel 82371EB. The arrangement of other chipsets is basically the same. For different chipsets, there are gaps in the performance of the performance.
In addition to the most common north and south bridge structure, the chipset is more advanced acceleration line architecture, Intel 8xx series chipset is the representative of this chipset, it will be some subsystems such as IDE interface, audio, MODEM and USB Direct access to the main chip, can provide twice the bandwidth than the PCI bus bandwidth, reaching 266MB / s; In addition, SiS635 / SiS735 SiS735 is also a new army of such chipsets. In addition to support for the latest DDR266, DDR200 and PC133 SDRAM specifications, but also supports four-speed AGP graphics card interface and Fast Write function, IDE ATA33 / 66/100, and built-in 3D stereo, high-speed data transmission capabilities include 56K data communication (Fast Ethernet), 1M / 10M home network (Home PNA) and so on.
Classification / chip
Transistor invented and mass-produced, all kinds of solid-state semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors and other large-scale use, instead of the vacuum tube in the circuit function and role. To the late 20th century, semiconductor manufacturing technology, making integrated circuits possible. Compared to the use of individual discrete electronic components in hand-assembled circuits, integrated circuits can integrate a large number of micro-transistors into a small chip, which is a huge step forward. The modular approach to IC scale production capability, reliability, and circuit design ensures the rapid adoption of standardized ICs instead of the design using discrete transistors.
IC has two main advantages for discrete transistors: cost and performance. The low cost is due to the fact that the chip takes all the components through the photolithography technique as a unit of printing, rather than making only one transistor at a time. The high performance is due to the fast switching of the components, which consumes less energy because the components are small and close to each other. In 2006, the chip area from a few square millimeters to 350 mm ², per mm² can reach 1 million transistors.
The first IC prototype was completed by Jack Kilby in 1958, which includes a bipolar transistor, three resistors and a capacitor.
According to the number of integrated micro-electronic devices on a chip, integrated circuits can be divided into the following categories:
Small-scale integrated circuits
SSI English full name Small Scale Integration, logic gate 10 or less or 100 transistors below.
In the scale of integrated circuits
MSI English full name Medium Scale Integration, logic gate 11 ~ 100 or transistors 101 ~ 1k.
Large scale integrated circuit
LSI English full name of the Large Scale Integration, logic gate 101 ~ 1k or transistors 1,001 ~ 10k.
Ultra - large - scale integrated circuits
VLSI English full name for the very large scale integration, logic gate 1,001 ~ 10k or transistors 10,001 ~ 100k.
Very large scale integrated circuits
ULSI English full name Ultra Large Scale Integration, logic gate 10,001 ~ 1M or transistors 100,001 ~ 10M months.
GLSI English full name Giga Scale Integration, logic gate 1,000,001 or more transistors or 10,000,001 or more.
According to the different processing signals, can be divided into analog integrated circuits, digital integrated circuits, and both analog and digital mixed-signal integrated circuits.
Development / chip
The state-of-the-art integrated circuits are the "cores" of microprocessors or multi-core processors that control everything from computers to mobile phones to digital microwave ovens. Memory and ASICs are examples of other integrated circuit families that are important for the modern information society. Although the cost of designing and developing a complex integrated circuit is very high, the cost of each IC is minimized when it is distributed on typically millions of products. IC performance is high because of the small size of the resulting short path, allowing low power logic circuits to be applied at fast switching speeds.
Over the years, ICs have continued to evolve to smaller form factors, allowing each chip to package more circuits. This increases the capacity per unit area, can reduce costs and increase functionality - see Moore's Law, the number of transistors in integrated circuits, doubling every two years. In short, with the reduction in size, almost all of the indicators improved - the unit cost and switching power consumption, increased speed. However, the integration of nano-level device IC is not without problems, mainly leakage current (leakage current). As a result, the increase in end-user speed and power consumption is significant, and manufacturers face the sharp challenge of using better geometries. This process and the progress expected in the next few years are well described in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).
More and more circuits in the form of integrated chips in the hands of designers, so that the development of electronic circuits tend to miniaturization, high-speed. More and more applications have been converted from complex analog circuits to simple digital logic ICs.
Manufacturing / chips
Chip manufacturing process, including chip design, chip production, packaging production, cost testing and other aspects, which is particularly complex process of making the chip.
Precision chip manufacturing process is very complex first is the chip design, according to the design requirements, the generated "pattern"
1, the chip raw material wafer
The composition of the wafer is silicon, silicon is refined by the quartz sand, the silicon wafer is purified (99.999%), followed by the silicon is made of silicon rods, as the manufacture of integrated circuits of quartz semiconductors Materials, the chip is the chip needed to produce specific wafers. The thinner the wafer, the lower the cost of production, but the higher the process requirements.
2, wafer coating
Wafer coating is resistant to oxidation and temperature resistance, the material is a kind of photoresist.
3, wafer lithography development, etching
The process uses UV-sensitive chemicals, that is, the case of ultraviolet light is soft. The shape of the chip can be obtained by controlling the position of the light shield. The silicon wafer is coated with a photoresist so that it will dissolve in the case of ultraviolet light. At this time can be used on the first shade, so that part of the ultraviolet light is dissolved, the dissolved part of the solvent can then be washed away. So that the remaining part of the shade with the shape of the same, and this effect is what we want. This gives us the silicon dioxide layer we need.
4, doped impurities
Implantation of ions in the wafer, the formation of the corresponding P, N-type semiconductor.
The specific process is to start from the silicon wafer exposed area, into the chemical ion mixture. This process will change the conductance of the doped region, so that each transistor can pass, disconnect, or carry data. A simple chip can only use a layer, but the complexity of the chip usually has many layers, this time will be repeated this process, different layers can be linked through the open window. This is similar to multi-layer PCB board production principle. More complex chips may require multiple layers of silicon dioxide, this time through repeated lithography and the above process to achieve, to form a three-dimensional structure.
5, wafer testing
After a few above the process, the wafer on the formation of a lattice-like grain. The electrical characteristics of each grain were measured by needle measurement. In general, the number of chips per chip is huge, and the organization of a pin-test mode is a very complex process, which requires the production of the same chip specifications as far as possible the construction of large quantities of production models. The larger the number, the lower the relative cost, which is why the cost of mainstream chip devices is a factor.
6, package
Will be manufactured to complete the wafer fixed, binding pin, in accordance with the requirements to produce a variety of different packages, which is the same chip core can have different causes of the package. For example: DIP, QFP, PLCC, QFN and so on. Here mainly by the user's application habits, application environment, market and other external factors to determine the form.
7, testing, packaging
After the above process, the chip production has been completed, this step is to test the chip, remove defective products, and packaging.
Application / chip
Computer chip
If the CPU CPU analogy as the heart of the entire computer system, then the chipset on the motherboard is the whole body of the trunk. For the motherboard, the chipset is almost determined the function of this motherboard, thereby affecting the performance of the entire computer system to play, the chipset is the soul of the motherboard.
Chipset (Chipset) is the core component of the motherboard, in accordance with the arrangement of the motherboard position is different, usually divided into North Bridge chip and South Bridge chip. North Bridge chip to provide the type and frequency of the CPU, the type of memory and maximum capacity, ISA / PCI / AGP slot, ECC error correction support. Southbridge provides support for KBC (keyboard controller), RTC (real-time clock controller), USB (Universal Serial Bus), Ultra DMA / 33 (66) EIDE data transmission and ACPI (Advanced Energy Management) . North Bridge chip which plays a leading role, also known as the main bridge (Host Bridge).
Biological chip
As with PCR technology, chip technology has been carried out and will carry out a very wide range of applications. The first area of application of biochips is the detection of gene expression. However, the strategy of placing biomolecules on the chip to detect biochemical samples in an orderly manner has been widely used. In addition to gene expression analysis, hybridization-based assays have been used for gene mutation detection, polymorphism analysis, gene mapping , Evolutionary research and other applications, microarray analysis can also be used to detect proteins and nucleic acids, small molecules and other proteins with the combination, but the application of these areas remains to be developed. Hybridization analysis of genomic DNA allows detection of single base changes in DNA coding and noncoding regions, loss and insertion, and DNA hybridization analysis, which can also be used to quantify DNA, which is important for detecting gene copy number and chromosome ploidy of.
Human brain chip
For decades, scientists have been "training" the computer, so that it can think like the human brain. This challenge tests the limits of science. Researchers at IBM said on the 18th that they have made significant progress on a research road that combines computers with the human brain.
The US technology company developed two chip prototypes, and the previous PC and supercomputer chips used in comparison, these chips and the way the human brain data processing approach more closely. The two chips represent a significant milestone in a six-year project. A total of 100 researchers participated in the project, and the US government's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) provided $ 41 million in funding. IBM's investment amount has not been announced.
The two chip prototypes provide further evidence of the increasing importance of "parallel processing". Parallel processing refers specifically to the simultaneous processing of multiple tasks by a computer. Multitasking is important for rendering images and processing large amounts of data. So far, the two chips are only used to deal with some very simple tasks, such as manipulation of a simulation car through the maze or play "Pong". They eventually go out of the laboratory and apply to the actual product may take 10 years or more.
Researchers from Switzerland, Germany, and the United States have for the first time developed a novel microchip that can simulate the human brain's processing of information in real time. The new results will help scientists to create real-time interaction with the surrounding environment cognitive system for the neural network computer and intelligent robot development to provide a strong technical support.
Chip Atlas
Previous studies have been limited to developing neural networks on traditional computers or simulating complex neural networks on supercomputers, and the new approach is that research and development are comparable to real brains in size, processing speed and power consumption Of the circuit. "Our goal is to simulate the properties of biological neurons and synapses directly on microchips," said study team member Kilkemo Indivelie.
The main challenge in doing this is to configure a network of artificial neurons to perform a specific task. The team has now succeeded in capturing this "bunker," which develops a device called "neuromorphic chips," capable of performing complex sensory-motor tasks in real time, and with this device, A task that requires short-term memory and context-dependent decision making is a typical feature of cognitive testing.
The team combined neural morphological neurons with networks that use neural processing modules - the equivalent of so-called "finite automata". A finite automaton is a mathematical concept used to describe logical processes and computer programs. The behavior can be expressed as a finite automaton, thus being transferred to the neural morphology hardware in an automated manner. "The network connection pattern is very similar to the structure found in the brain," said Ingridion.
Chip Atlas
Because the neural chip can process and respond to input information in real time, experts believe that this technology will be expected to become practical, allowing the robot in a complex environment, without human remote control in the case of automatic operation.
The adoption of this technology will also allow the computer to continue functioning in the event of component damage, as millions of brain cells are lost every day as the human brain does, but the overall thinking continues Normal operation.
The European Union, the United States and Switzerland are currently developing a neural network computer simulating brain processing information, hoping to replicate the artificial intelligence system by simulating biological neurons. This new type of computer "brain chip" is very different from the traditional computer "brain chip." It can use the neural algorithm similar to the human brain, low power consumption and strong fault tolerance is its greatest advantage, compared to traditional digital computers, its intelligence will be stronger in cognitive learning, automatic organization, the comprehensive treatment of fuzzy information And so will be a big step forward.
However, some people expressed concern: the robot equipped with this chip will be intelligent in the future beyond human beings, and even pose a threat to humans?
Many scientists believe that such concerns are completely unnecessary. As far as intelligence is concerned, at present, the IQ of a robot is equivalent to that of a 4-year-old child, and the robot's "common sense" is far worse than a normal adult. "We are still far from the common-sense artificial intelligence program to answer complex questions with the ability of an 8-year-old child," US scientist Robert Sloan said, adding that even if the robot has common sense and can To carry out self-replication, it can not pose a threat to mankind. It is worth mentioning that the Chinese scientist Zhou Haizhong published in 1990, "on the robot," a paper that: the robot is not omnipotent; it in the intensity of work, speed and memory functions can be beyond human, but in the sense, reasoning, etc. It is impossible to transcend mankind. In addition, the robot will be more and more "smart", but only in accordance with the principles of the development of guidelines for action to serve mankind, the benefit of mankind.
Other chips
Modulation and detector technology breakthrough, silicon photonic chip interconnection applications just around the corner.
High-speed optical communications in the past 30 years of development, has become a wired high-speed information transmission standards. In 2000 by the US economic bubble and the network market demand for bandwidth as expected under the influence of the optical communications industry and the client has been quiet for some time to expand. In the past, in addition to government units or large-scale network construction enterprises, the general end-user direct access to high bit-rate transmission opportunities are not high. Although the field of high-speed optical communication applications is still the backbone of long-distance network services, but according to the current evaluation of the mainstream industry forum, personal client bit rate will be in 2015 and 2023 were upgraded to 1Gbit / s and 10Gbit / S.
Preparation using / chip
Chip preparation
Chip Atlas
The preparation of bio-chip is mainly dependent on micro-processing, automation and chemical synthesis technology. According to different use requirements, micro-processing technology can be used in the chip substrate material processing a variety of micro-structure, and then apply the necessary biochemical substances and surface treatment. The more simple preparation of the chip, such as the preparation of DNA chips, it is in the substrate using automated or chemical synthesis of direct application or synthesis of the necessary biochemical substances, the substrate material does not do any micro-processing. There are four typical preparation methods of DNA chips. The first is the light-induced in-situ synthesis developed by Affymetrix. This method is a combination of lithography and photochemical synthesis in micromachining. The second method is the chemical injection method employed by Incyte Pharmaceutical. The method comprises the following steps: a DNA chip is prepared by injecting the synthesized oligonucleotide probe into a chip and immobilizing it. The third method is the contact point coating method developed by Stanford University, in the preparation of DNA chip by high-speed precision robot precise movement so that the head and the glass chip contact with the DNA probe coated on the chip. The fourth method is to synthesize a DNA probe in parallel on a chip by using four piezoelectric nozzles respectively equipped with A, T, G and C nucleosides. Regardless of the method, the aim is to quickly and accurately place the probe on a designated location on the chip.
Nucleic acid sample
Separation and purification of nucleic acid samples is not an easy task, including cell separation, cell destruction, deproteinization, extraction of DNA and other aspects of the work in the cell separation method is more prominent filter separation (such as the University of Pennsylvania Research Group (The use of a high-frequency non-uniform electric field applied to the chip to induce even electrodes in different cells, resulting in different dielectric forces acting on the cells, thereby transferring them from the sample Separation) and so on.
Biochemical reactions
Chip Atlas
Because the sensitivity of the test equipment used is not high enough, DNA extracted from blood or living tissue requires amplification before replication and labeling.For example, in the case of a living anatomical specimen of a tumor, Normal gene to find an abnormal oncogene, it is clear that the need for the necessary and unique copy of the sample DNA was easy to detect. The research of nucleic acid amplification in the chip has made great progress. Among the successful PCRs in the chip are the University of Pennsylvania Research Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Perkin-Elmer Company and Imperial College London. The University of Pennsylvania team carried out the amplification reaction is carried out in the silicon - glass chip, the chip external heating and cooling using a computer-controlled Peltier electric heater. They successfully performed a series of different nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as RT-PCR, LCR, multiplex PCR, and DOP-PCR, in a silicon-glass chip.Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories processed silicon chips using a chip-embedded thin-film polysilicon Heating sleeve, so that the rate of temperature rise and fall can be greatly improved. Perkin-Elmer's PCR was done on plastic chips, and a team led by Manz at Imperial College London, London, developed a PCR chip that can run continuously over a constant temperature range at different temperatures.
Common PCR has some shortcomings, such as difficult to achieve multiple amplification and competition in the PCR process.Mosaic Technologies researchers have developed a solid-phase PCR system, they will be two primer curing in acrylamide film , And allowed to contact DNA template and PCR reagents, so that in the solid surface of the PCR reaction. The DNA synthesized during amplification creates a bridge between the primers, thereby avoiding competition problems, and the system is still in the research phase. Another innovative approach in the preparation of nucleic acid samples is the large-scale parallel solid-phase cloning of Lynx Therapeutics, which can simultaneously clone hundreds of individual DNA fragments in a sample.
Detection method
Commonly used chip detection methods have capillary electrophoresis separation and affinity binding analysis. Chip capillary electrophoresis was developed by Dupont's Pace in 1983. Subsequently, Ciba Geigy of Switzerland cooperated with Alberta University in Canada in the separation of oligonucleotides using glass chip capillary electrophoresis. The first use of chip capillary array electrophoresis to detect DNA mutations and DNA sequencing was done by a team led by Mathies of the University of California at Berkeley. By adding high-voltage direct current to the chip, they completed a rapid separation of multiple DNA fragments from 118 to 1 353 bp in nearly 2 min. Wilding's team at the University of Pennsylvania and Ramsey's team have also used chip-based capillary electrophoresis to isolate several DNA fragments from the chip that have been multiplex-amplified for the diagnosis of Duchenne-Becker muscular dystrophy. Other foreign companies and academic institutions that use chip capillary electrophoresis to detect mutations include Perkin-Elmer, Caliper Technologies, Aclara Biosciences, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Affinity binding
For DNA microarrays, affinity binding assays are performed primarily by hybridization between nucleic acids, depending on the length of the probe on the chip and the length of the DNA fragment to be measured and the stability of the DNA secondary structure . Hybridization can be used to repeat the hybridization sequencing, DNA mutation detection and gene expression analysis. Hybridization The sequencing process involves placing a mixture of single-stranded DNA complementary to the probe sequence on the chip and the solidified probe being hybridized from a DNA fragment complementary to its sequence from a very complex mixture Samples were identified, by using a computer with a fluorescence detection system on the chip detected DNA samples emitted by the fluorescence intensity and the known sequence of the probe analysis, control and combination of the sample DNA can be found / RTI & gt; In 1996, Science published a report on hybrid repeat sequencing using chip hybridization techniques. Chee et al. Reported that on a silicon chip with 135,000 oligonucleotide probes (each with a length of 25 nucleotides) The entire human mitochondrial DNA was 16.6 kb in length and sequenced. The interval between each set of probes was 35 μm and the repeatability was 99%. In addition, eleven African individuals were spotted and found to have mutations in the mitochondrial DNA of these samples 505. Biomass hybrid sequencing of the existing US companies Affymetrix and Hyseq two, Affymetrix also developed a system (gene chip bioinformation system), the chip sequencing and bioinformatics associated with sequencing results directly into the database Do the next step analysis. One of the important applications of DNA analysis by hybridization is the detection of DNA mutations. For example, Hacia et al. Used hybridization microarrays consisting of 96,000 oligonucleotide probes to complete the detection of exons in inherited breast cancer and ovarian tumor gene BRCA1 (SNPs), and the hybridization specificity and detection sensitivity were improved by introducing color difference analysis between the reference signal and the detected signal. Biomedical companies are Beckman, Abbot Laboratory, Affymetrix, Nanogen, Sarnoff, Genometrix, Vysis, Hygien, Molecular Dynamics, and other biomarkers. The Anglo-American academic institutions include Pennsylvania University, Oxford University, Naval Research, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research , Argonne National Laboratory, etc. The use of chip hybridization for gene expression analysis is another major use of DNA chips. In general, the study of gene expression requires a relatively long hybridization time, without the need for accurate sequencing, but mainly to understand the unique motifs in the gene structure.Gene expression analysis of disease diagnosis and drug screening to bring a huge Impact. Lockhart et al. Quantitatively analyzed 21 different messenger RNAs in the entire RNA population of a mouse T cell using microarrays with 65,000 different sequence probes (20 nucleotides in length), which were specifically designed Of the probes were able to hybridize to 114 known mouse genes, and the results of the analysis revealed that the expression of the other 20 messenger RNAs also changed after the induction of cell division. The results showed that the detection rate of RNA was 1: 300 000, and the quantitative standard of messenger RNA was 1: 300.DeRisi et al. Made a total of 1 161 different cDNA probes in a malignant tumor cell line by manipulator "Brush" to the slide to observe the expression of oncogenes. After comparing the hybridization results of two messenger RNAs labeled with different fluorescent markers, they analyzed the gene expression in the cells whose tumor genes were inhibited after the introduction of the normal human chromosome, which was obtained not only in gene analysis Success, the researchers is the technology and other related fields combine to make the application of microarray technology more widely.
For microarray producers and users, the results obtained from hybridization on a chip are not perfect, and there are some problems. First, the hybridization on the array is not a simple liquid reaction, but a liquid-solid reaction, so that DNA strands can not naturally hybridize together in completely free conditions; and the secondary structure of DNA can also lead to distortion Hybridization results (in-chain hybridization). In response to this latter problem, a new protocol for the in-chain hybridization problem has been developed by using peptide nucleic acids (PNA) probes. In PNA-DNA hybridization, probes made with PNA are more accessible than DNA-based probes than DNA-based probes, whereas PNA-DNA hybridization is more stable than DNA-DNA hybridization, Mismatch is also easier to detect. Enrichment of DNA on the chip surface is one of the measures to increase the speed of DNA parallel hybridization on the chip.Nanogen developed the active electronic biochip, can be detected DNA / RNA molecules to be fast approached to be cured Of the DNA probe, so that the hybridization speed has been greatly improved.
Information Collection
Chip Atlas
Most DNA microarray analysis uses fluorescence detection, which is a widely used method by researchers. In addition, there are time-of-flight mass spectrometry, optical waveguide, diode array detection, direct power change detection, etc. For example, the United States Sequenom company using photosensitive connection technology, the probe through the photosensitive group connected to the chip. When hybridization was complete, the oligonucleotides were cleaved using a laser and tested using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and the company was only able to analyze short DNA fragments and whether further analysis of long DNA sequences could be achieved. Smith et al, of the University of Wisconsin, also used PNA probes and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze polymorphisms in the tyrosinase gene in humans, Confocal microscopy can detect thousands of probe hybridization results at the micron-scale resolution, and many companies have developed software for chip analysis to quickly process and analyze hybridization data. In addition to the microarray chips obtained by hybridization, a variety of microchips with different microstructures (microchannels, reaction chambers, filters, etc.) are being developed and developed. These chips typically have a size of 1 The study of biochips began in the 1980s, such as DuPont 's Capillary Electrophoresis. More and more kinds of biochips have been developed, such as capillary electrophoresis chip, cell separation chip, immune chip, mass spectrometer chip, nucleic acid amplification chip, etc. All of these chips have been researched and developed for miniaturization and miniaturization of analytical instruments Laboratory to achieve a good foundation.